The use of sewage effluent water for the irrigation of grapevines significantly altered the chemical composition of wines. Sodium and chloride levels in wines from effluent treatment were considerably higher than is usual for Australian red wines.
While higher concentrations of total nitrogen, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus were found from vine receiving 135 L effluent/week, concentrations were not much beyond the range reported for Australian Shiraz wines.
Although the majority of industry wine tasters in a panel detected significant differences between wines from the various irrigation treatments, they were divided in their preferences.
Irrigation of Grapevines with Sewage Effluent II. Effects on Wine Composition and Quality
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1981, vol 32, iss 3, pages 197-199