In this article:

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to provide  direct evidence that shoots produced in vitro from fragmented shoot apices of grapevine were adventitious in origin.

The effect of temperature on the formation of the buds was also examined using SEM.

A temperature close to the lethal temperature, in addition to increasing the rate of proliferation of adventitious shoot buds, has also been shown to induce the in vitro formation of multiple-branched tendrils, structures not previously described for grapevine

Studies of the Fragmented Shoot Apex of Grapevine. III. A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Adventitious Bud Formation In Vitro

1981, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol 32, issue 130, month 10, pages 1079-1083

csiro 571

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